E-ISSN 2534-9821
 

Review Article 


Potential usage of immune modulating supplements of the Echinacea genus for COVID-19 infection

Gabriele Jessica Kembuan, Warren Lie, Andhyka Haryanto Tumimomor.

Abstract
The symptoms and progression of viral respiratory infections, such as the novel COVID-19 pandemic, is thought to be highly related to the host immune response. Populations with impaired immune response are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19; on the other hand, amplified immune response manifesting in “cytokine storm” is predicted to lead to adverse outcome. Consumption of immune modulating supplements such as Echinacea purpurea is often advocated to prevent infection, but the exact effects it exerts on immune response and disease outcome is much debated. This review aims to provide an analysis from data of the mechanism of action of this supplement, known immune response against COVID-19, as well as inflammatory and immune pathways already elucidated from similar infections such as SARS and MERS, in hope to gain a better understanding of the host immune responses and the possible outcome of its modulation. This predictive view may help in designing a preventive measures against COVID-19 that can be widely adopted by the general population in the near future.

Key words: COVID-19, immune response, cytokines, echinacea purpurea


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Kembuan GJ, Lie W, Tumimomor AH, . Potential usage of immune modulating supplements of the Echinacea genus for COVID-19 infection. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.immune-modulating-supplements-Echinacea-genus-covid-19-infection


Web Style

Kembuan GJ, Lie W, Tumimomor AH, . Potential usage of immune modulating supplements of the Echinacea genus for COVID-19 infection. http://www.mdpub.net/?mno=100230 [Access: November 04, 2020]. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.immune-modulating-supplements-Echinacea-genus-covid-19-infection


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Kembuan GJ, Lie W, Tumimomor AH, . Potential usage of immune modulating supplements of the Echinacea genus for COVID-19 infection. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.immune-modulating-supplements-Echinacea-genus-covid-19-infection



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Kembuan GJ, Lie W, Tumimomor AH, . Potential usage of immune modulating supplements of the Echinacea genus for COVID-19 infection. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.immune-modulating-supplements-Echinacea-genus-covid-19-infection



Harvard Style

Kembuan, G. J., Lie, W., Tumimomor, A. H. & (2020) Potential usage of immune modulating supplements of the Echinacea genus for COVID-19 infection. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.immune-modulating-supplements-Echinacea-genus-covid-19-infection



Turabian Style

Kembuan, Gabriele Jessica, Warren Lie, Andhyka Haryanto Tumimomor, and . 2020. Potential usage of immune modulating supplements of the Echinacea genus for COVID-19 infection. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.immune-modulating-supplements-Echinacea-genus-covid-19-infection



Chicago Style

Kembuan, Gabriele Jessica, Warren Lie, Andhyka Haryanto Tumimomor, and . "Potential usage of immune modulating supplements of the Echinacea genus for COVID-19 infection." doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.immune-modulating-supplements-Echinacea-genus-covid-19-infection



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Kembuan, Gabriele Jessica, Warren Lie, Andhyka Haryanto Tumimomor, and . "Potential usage of immune modulating supplements of the Echinacea genus for COVID-19 infection." doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.immune-modulating-supplements-Echinacea-genus-covid-19-infection



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Kembuan, G. J., Lie, W., Tumimomor, A. H. & (2020) Potential usage of immune modulating supplements of the Echinacea genus for COVID-19 infection. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.immune-modulating-supplements-Echinacea-genus-covid-19-infection