E-ISSN 2534-9821
 

Review Article 


Periapical Surgery. Review. Classic vs Modern Concepts

Bogdan Petrov Krastev, Ivan Filipov.

Abstract
Modern endodontic surgery is microsurgical. The microscope, endoscope, ultrasonic tools, microinstruments allow much less trauma. Flaps reflection is less invasive, ostectomy and osteotomy is much smaller which improves healing and treatment outcome. Root resection is as big as possible and as much as needed to preserve the stability of teeth. Performing surgery without thorough knowledge of new advancements and concepts is below the standard of practice.

Key words: microscope, endoscope, haemostasis, flaps, isthmus


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Krastev BP, Filipov I, . Periapical Surgery. Review. Classic vs Modern Concepts. Int J Med Rev Case Rep. 2019; 3(12): 865-872. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.periapical-surgery


Web Style

Krastev BP, Filipov I, . Periapical Surgery. Review. Classic vs Modern Concepts. http://www.mdpub.net/?mno=66969 [Access: September 27, 2020]. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.periapical-surgery


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Krastev BP, Filipov I, . Periapical Surgery. Review. Classic vs Modern Concepts. Int J Med Rev Case Rep. 2019; 3(12): 865-872. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.periapical-surgery



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Krastev BP, Filipov I, . Periapical Surgery. Review. Classic vs Modern Concepts. Int J Med Rev Case Rep. (2019), [cited September 27, 2020]; 3(12): 865-872. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.periapical-surgery



Harvard Style

Krastev, B. P., Filipov, I. & (2019) Periapical Surgery. Review. Classic vs Modern Concepts. Int J Med Rev Case Rep, 3 (12), 865-872. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.periapical-surgery



Turabian Style

Krastev, Bogdan Petrov, Ivan Filipov, and . 2019. Periapical Surgery. Review. Classic vs Modern Concepts. International Journal of Medical Reviews and Case Reports, 3 (12), 865-872. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.periapical-surgery



Chicago Style

Krastev, Bogdan Petrov, Ivan Filipov, and . "Periapical Surgery. Review. Classic vs Modern Concepts." International Journal of Medical Reviews and Case Reports 3 (2019), 865-872. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.periapical-surgery



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Krastev, Bogdan Petrov, Ivan Filipov, and . "Periapical Surgery. Review. Classic vs Modern Concepts." International Journal of Medical Reviews and Case Reports 3.12 (2019), 865-872. Print. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.periapical-surgery



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Krastev, B. P., Filipov, I. & (2019) Periapical Surgery. Review. Classic vs Modern Concepts. International Journal of Medical Reviews and Case Reports, 3 (12), 865-872. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.periapical-surgery