E-ISSN 2534-9821
 

Case Report 


Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome: a case series

Musa Azhar, Syed Abdul Mannan Hamdani, Shafquat Ali Khan, Abdul Wahab, Jhanzeb Iftikhar, Usman Ahmad, Bushra Ahsan.

Abstract
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, life-threatening hematologic disorder occurring more commonly in children, but there are reported cases in adults as well. It is classified as a primary HLH or secondary HLH, which can occur due to autoimmune diseases, infections, and malignancies. Secondary HLH is a challenge for physicians concerning diagnosis and management.
In this case series, we report two patients of HLH diagnosed between August 2018 and August 2019 at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research Centre Lahore Pakistan, which were triggered by different underlying conditions like autoimmune diseases and malignancies or a combination of both.

Key words: Familial HLH (FHL), Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Azhar M, Hamdani SAM, Khan SA, Wahab A, Iftikhar J, Ahmad U, Ahsan B. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome: a case series. Int J Med Rev Case Rep. 2022; 6(16): 8-13. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.172-1617681669


Web Style

Azhar M, Hamdani SAM, Khan SA, Wahab A, Iftikhar J, Ahmad U, Ahsan B. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome: a case series. https://www.mdpub.net/?mno=70732 [Access: January 14, 2023]. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.172-1617681669


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Azhar M, Hamdani SAM, Khan SA, Wahab A, Iftikhar J, Ahmad U, Ahsan B. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome: a case series. Int J Med Rev Case Rep. 2022; 6(16): 8-13. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.172-1617681669



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Azhar M, Hamdani SAM, Khan SA, Wahab A, Iftikhar J, Ahmad U, Ahsan B. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome: a case series. Int J Med Rev Case Rep. (2022), [cited January 14, 2023]; 6(16): 8-13. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.172-1617681669



Harvard Style

Azhar, M., Hamdani, . S. A. M., Khan, . S. A., Wahab, . A., Iftikhar, . J., Ahmad, . U. & Ahsan, . B. (2022) Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome: a case series. Int J Med Rev Case Rep, 6 (16), 8-13. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.172-1617681669



Turabian Style

Azhar, Musa, Syed Abdul Mannan Hamdani, Shafquat Ali Khan, Abdul Wahab, Jhanzeb Iftikhar, Usman Ahmad, and Bushra Ahsan. 2022. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome: a case series. International Journal of Medical Reviews and Case Reports, 6 (16), 8-13. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.172-1617681669



Chicago Style

Azhar, Musa, Syed Abdul Mannan Hamdani, Shafquat Ali Khan, Abdul Wahab, Jhanzeb Iftikhar, Usman Ahmad, and Bushra Ahsan. "Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome: a case series." International Journal of Medical Reviews and Case Reports 6 (2022), 8-13. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.172-1617681669



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Azhar, Musa, Syed Abdul Mannan Hamdani, Shafquat Ali Khan, Abdul Wahab, Jhanzeb Iftikhar, Usman Ahmad, and Bushra Ahsan. "Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome: a case series." International Journal of Medical Reviews and Case Reports 6.16 (2022), 8-13. Print. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.172-1617681669



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Azhar, M., Hamdani, . S. A. M., Khan, . S. A., Wahab, . A., Iftikhar, . J., Ahmad, . U. & Ahsan, . B. (2022) Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome: a case series. International Journal of Medical Reviews and Case Reports, 6 (16), 8-13. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.172-1617681669